Sven Jürgenson studied data processing at the Tallinn Polytechnic Institute and the Dresden College of Engineering between 1980 and 1987. He was a researcher and analyst in data processing at the Tallinn Polytechnic Institute and the Estonian Institute from 1987 to 1991.
In 1991 he joined the diplomatic service of Estonia, and was posted to Helsinki 1991–1993 and to Vienna 1993–1995. He was Director of the Division for Security Policy and International Organizations and Deputy Political Director at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1995–1996 and Director General of the Political Department 1996–1998. Additionally, he served as non-resident Ambassador to Turkey 1996–1998.
He was Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York from 1998 to 2000 and Ambassador to the United States also accredited to Canada and Mexico from 2000 to 2003. He was Under-Secretary for Political Affairs from 2003 to 2006, Foreign Policy Adviser to the President of Estonia from 2006 to 2010 and Ambassador to France from 2010 to 2015. In 2015 he again became Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York, and he was elected President of the UNICEF Executive Board for the term 2016.